Tuesday, March 1, 2011

First Professional, Second Semester, Physiology and Histology


Cr. Hr. 03


1. PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE AND MUSCLE: Chemical change in Muscle on contraction. Action Potential.

2. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Spinal reflexes. Reflex regulation of movement and posture. Cerbral cortex functions. Voluntary movements. Descending tracts of spinal cord. Basal ganglia, Cerbellum. Autonomic Nervous system. Thalamus. CSF.

3. SKIN: Structure, Functions of skin, Temperature regulation by Skin.

4. SPECIAL SENSE: Elementary knowledge of structure and function of the special senses.

5. ENDOCRINOLOGY: Definition of Hormone. Nature of different types of hormone. Mechanism of action of hormone.

(a) Pituitary hormones: Growth Hormone, Prolactin, ACTH, TSH, ADH, Oxytocin. Acromegaly, Giantism, PanHypopituitrism.

(b) Thyriod Gland: Thyroxin, Tri-iodothyronin, Format and functions of thyroid hormones. Hyperthroidism, Myxodema.

(c) Para thyriod Hormone:

(d) Pancreatic Hormone: Insulin, Glucagon, Diabetes mellitis.

(e) Adrenal Glands: Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Anabolic Steroids, Adrenalin, Nor-adrenalin, Cushing syndrome, Addison disease.

(f) Sex Hormones: Female Sex Hormone: Structure and function. Male Development of secondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis. Composition of semen. Female Development of secondary characters. Menstruation, (Ovarian cycle). Oogenesis. (Dysmanorrhea, etc.).


1. Skin: Types of skin, Derivatives of skin including Nail, sebaceous glands, sweat glands and Hair follicles.

2. Lymphoid Tissue: General structure of Lymphoid organs: Lymph node, spleen, palatine tonsil and thymus.

3. Excretory system including Kidney, Ureter, and Urinary bladder.

4. Reproductive system: Male reproductive organs, (Testes, Genital tract). Female reproductive organs, (Ovary, and female genital tract).

5. Endocrine system: Pituitary gland, Adrenal gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Endocrine part of pancreas.


Cr. Hr. 01

NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities.


1. Eye: Visual activity, far vision and near vision. Field of vision (Perimetry).

2. CNS: Nerve Muscle Preparation in frog. Effect of Temperature on muscle. Demonstration of spinal reflexes.


Demosntration of preparation and staining of slides. Histological examination of slides. Organ system – Skin, Spleen, Tonsil, thymus, Reproductive system, Endocrine system, etc.

Recommended Books


1. Arthur C Guyton, M D, Text Books of Medical Physiology, W B Saunders Company, 9th Ed., 1996.

2. William F Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, Prentice Hall International Inc, 17th Ed., 1995.

3. Chandi Charan Chatterjee, Human Physiology, Medical allied agency, 1994.

4. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology. Revised by Cyril A Keele and Eric Neil.

5. Spence A P and Mason E B, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Beajamin/Cumming Publishing Inc, Clifornia, 3rd Ed.

6. Snell R S, Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students, Little Brown & Co Inc, USA. 1992.


1. Bradbury S, Hewer’s TextBook of Histology, ELBS, London, 1984.

2. Reference Book: Tissues of the body by Legros Clerks. Publisher Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London.

3. Cormack H D, Essential Histology, J B Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, 1993.

4. Hammersen F, Histology; colour atlas of microscopic anatomy, Lee & Febijer Co, Pennsylvania, 1985.
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