__BIOSTATISTICS__

__(Theory)__Cr. Hr. 04

1. DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICS: Descriptive Statistics: What is Statistics? Importance of Statistics. What is Biostatistics? Application of Statistics in Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. How samples are selected?

2. ORGANIZING and DISPLAYING DATA: Vriables, Quantitative and Qualitative Variables, Univariate Data, Bivariate Data, Random Variables, Frequency Table, Diagrams, Pictograms, Simple Bar Charts, Multiple Bar Charts, Histograms.

3. SUNNARIZING DATA and VARIATION: The Mean, The Median, The Mode, The Mean Deviatiobn, The Variance and Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation.

4. CURVE FITTING: Fitting a Straight Line. Fitting of Parabolic or High Degree Curve.

5. PROBABILITY: Definitions, Probability Rules,Probability Distributions (Binomial & Normal Distributions).

6. SIMPLE REGRESSION AND COORELATION: Introduction. Simple Linear Regression Model. Correlation co-efficient.

7. TEST OF HYPOTHESIS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Statistical Hypothesis Level of Significance. Test of Significance. Confidence Intervals, Test involving Binomial and Normal Distributions.

8. STUDENT “t”, “F” and Chi-Square Distributions: Test of Significance based on “t”, “F” and Square Distributions.

9. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: One-way Classification, Two-way Classification, Partitioning of Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom, Multiple Ccompression Tests such as LSD, The analysis of Variance Models.

__Recommended Books__

1. Daniel W W, Bio-Statistics, Foundation for Analysis in Health Science. 3rd Ed., 1983.

2. Zar J H, Bio-Statistical analysis, Francis Hall, N J, USA.

3. Nilton J S, and Tsokos J D, Statistical Methods in Biological and Health Sciences, McGrew-Hill. 1983.

4. Chaudhry S A and Kamal S, Introduction to Statistical Theory, Part-I and Part-II, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, 1996.

5. Samuels M, Statistics for the life sciences, Dellen Pub Co, S F, USA, 1991.

6. Walpole R E, Introdution to Statistics, Macmillam Pub Co, N Y, 1982.