Sunday, May 10, 2009

Classification of Anti-emetic drugs and laxatives

Q:1. How do you classify anti-emetic drugs?
Ans.
(A) Central Anti-emetics:
(1) Dopamine D2-Receptor Antagonist:
Haloperidol
(2) Sedative-Hypnotics:
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines
(B) Central and Peripheral Antiemetics:
(1) D2 receptor antagonists:
Metacloperamide, Domperidone
(2) 5-HT3 receptor antagonists:
Ondansetron, Granisetron
(3) Anti-muscarinics:
Scopolamine, Atropine
(4) H1 receptor antagonists:
Ceclizine, Meclizine, Dimenhydrinate
(C) Peripheral antiemetics:
(1) Demulcents:
Gum acacia, Gum tragacanth
(2) Adsorbents:
Kaolin, Aluminium hydroxide
(3) Gastric mucosal anesthetics:
Chlorbutanol
Q: 2. How do you classify anti-diarrheals?
Ans.
(1) Gastrointestinal protectives and adsorbents:
Bismuth subsalicylate, Attapulgite, Pectin, Kaolin
(2) Astringents:
Drugs that have the ability of releasing tannic acid e.g. catechin
(3) Anti-motility drugs
(a) Antimuscarinics:
Mepenzolate, Propantheline, Atropine
(b) Opioid derivatives:
Codeine, Loperamide
Q: 3. How do you classify bulk laxatives?
Ans.
(1) Hydrophilic colloids:
Agar, Psyllium seeds and husks, Bran
(2) Osmotic laxatives:
(a) Saline Cathartics:
Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium citrate
(b) Lactulose
Q: 4. How do you classify Stimulant laxatives?
Ans.
(1) Mild stimulants
Figs, Prunes, Castor oil
(2) Moderate stimulants:
Phenolphthalein, Bisacodyl
(3) Severe stimulants:
Croton oil, Colocynth,
Q:5. Classify stool softeners?
Ans.
(1) Surface active agents:
Docusate sodium, Poloxamers such as poloxalkol
(2) Mineral oils:
Liquid paraffin
Viva from out of course of Pharmacology:
Q: 6. What is the effect of Quranic Recitation on Alzheimer’s disease (A. D.) ?
Ans.
Name of Journal:
Journal of Neurobiology of Aging
Article title:
The effect of voice of Holy QURAN to decrease aggressive behaviors in people with A. D
.
Researchers and Year:
Abdollahzadeh et al. in 2000
Effects:
They have found that Quranic recitation after a 4 week observation period causes a
1. Decrease in aggressive behavior of patients with alzheimer’s disease.
2. General increase in remembrance of past memories.
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