Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Third Professional, Second Semester, Pharmacognosy


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1. VOLATILE OILS (ESSENTIAL OILS): Introduction, significance, methods of obtaining volatile oils, chemistry and classification of:

(a) Hydrocarbon volatile oils: Cubeb and Terpentine oil.

(b) Alcoholic volatile oils: Peppermint, Coriander and Cardamom.

(c) Aldehydic volatile oils: Bitter orange peel, sweet orange peel, lemon, cinnamon and bitter almond oil.

(d) Ketonic volatile oils: Camphor, spearmint, caraway, Buchu.

(e) Phenolic volatile oils: Clove, Thyme.

(f) Phenolic ether volatile oils: Fennel, Anise, Myristica.

(g) Oxide volatile oils: Eucalyptus, chenopodium.

(h) Ester volatile oils: Rosemary.

(i) Miscellaneous volatile oils: Allium, Anethum.

2. RESINS AND RESIN COMBINATION: Introduction, properties and difference between glycoresins, oleoresins, oleo-gum resins and balsams.

(a) Resins: Rosin, Cannabis.

(b) Glycoresins: Podophyllum, Jalap, Ipomoea, Colocynth.

(c) Oleoresins: Terpentine, Capsicum, Ginger.

(d) Oleo-gum resins: Asafoetida, Myrrh.

(e) Balsams: Storax, Peruvian balsam, Tolu balsam, Benzoin.

3. ALKALOIDS: Introduction, Properties, Cassification, Function of alkaloids in plants, Methods of extraction and identification tests.

(a) Pyridine — Piperidine Alkaloids: Areca nut, Lobelia, Tobacco.

(b) Tropane Alkaloids: Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium.

(c) Quinoline Alkaloids: Cinchona.

(d) Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Ipecacuanha, Opium.

(e) Indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux vomica, physostigma, ergot.

(f) Imidazole alkaloids: Pilocarpus.

(g) Steroidal alkaloids: Veratrum.

(h) Alkaloidal amines: Ephedra, colchicum.

(i) Purine Bases: Tea, Coffee.

4. TUMOUR INHIBITORS FROM PLANT: Detailed study of various antitumour agents isolated from plants.

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NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Isolation and separation of active constituents of crude drugs by paper and thin layer chromatography.

Recommended Books

1. V E Tyler, L R Brady and J E Robbers, Pharmacognosy, 9th Ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
2. G E Trease and W C Evans, Pharmacognosy, W B Saunders, Philadelphia, Toronto, 2002.
3. K Usmanghani, Topics in Pharmacognosy, University Grants Commission Monograph Series, Islamabad, pp74, 1985.
4. T E Wellis, Text book of Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 1986.
5. Varro E Taylor, Pharmacognosy, Lee Febiger Philadelphia, 9th Ed.
6. Mohammad Ali, Introduction to Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 1986.
7. K Usmanghani, Chemical Pharmacognosy, University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 1985.
8. Youngkin H W, Text Book of Pharmacognosy, The Blakiston Co, Toronto, 6th Ed., 1948.
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