Tuesday, March 1, 2011

Second Professional, First semester, Pharmacology and Therapeutics


Cr. Hr. 03


(a) Introduction: History, Pharmacology and its classification and Drugs and their sources

(b) Routes of drugs administration: Advantages and disadvantages of Enteral Routes, Advantages and disadvantages of Parentral Routes and Advantages and disadvantages of Topical Routes.

(c) Pharmacokinetics: Drug solubility and passage of drugs across the body membranes, Plasma concentration of drugs and various factors affecting it (Absorption and factors influencing the rate of absorption (GIT and other routes) of drugs, Distribution and factors influencing the rate of distribution of drugs, Biotransformation and factors influencing the rate of biotransformation of drugs, Excretion, channels of excretion and factors influencing the rate of excretion of drugs), Definition of (Bioabvailability & Bioequivalence, Therapeutic Index, Plasma Half Life (t½), Dose-Response Curve, Area Under Curve, Volume of Distribution.

(d) Pharmacodynamics: Drug receptors and theories, Mechanisms of drug action, Specificity of drug action and Factors modifying the action & dosage of drugs.


(a) Organization of ANS its subdivisions and innervations.

(b) Neurotransmitters in ANS, their synthesis, release and fate.

(c) Sympathetic agonist drugs: Catecholamines and Non-catecholamines.

(d) Sympathetic antagonist drugs: Adrenergics Nerve Blockers, Adrenoceptor antagonists (Alpha-adrenergic blockers and Betaadrenergic blockers).

(e) Parasympathetic (Cholinergic) agonists and Anticholinestrase inhibitors.

(f) Parasympathetic antagonists.

(g) Drugs acting on Ganglia (Ganglian stimulants and Ganglion blockers).

(h) Neuromuscular blocking drugs.


(a) Emetic.

(b) Anti-emetics.

(c) Purgatives: Bulk forming purgatives, Lubricant purgatives, Irritant purgatives and Saline Purgatives.

(d) Anti-diarrheal Agents.

(e) Treatment of Peptic & Dudenal Ulcers: Antiacids, H2-Receptor Antagonists, Antimuscarinic Agents, Proton Pump Inhibitors, Gastrin Receptor Antagonist and Cytoprotective agents.

(f) Drug treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of bowel.

(g) Drugs affecting bile flow and Cholelithiasis.


1. Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products.

2. While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group.

3. Newly introducted drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time.

4. The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books.


Cr. Hr. 01

NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Preparation of standard solution. Ringer solution. Tyrode solution. Kreb solution. Normal saline solution. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) & sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart. Routes of Administration of drugs.

(Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted)

Recommended Books

1. Goodman Gillman, Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1996.

2. Winguard and Brody, Human Pharmacology, Mosby Year Book, Boston, 1991.

3. James M Ritter and Lionel De Levis, A Text book of Clinical Pharmacology, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.

4. R S Satorkar and S D Bhandarkar, Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Popular Prakashan, Bomby, 1993.

5. J D Tripathy, Essential of Medical Pharmacology, Japees Brother, New Delhi, 4th Ed., 2000.

6. D R Laurance, Clinical Pharmacology, ELBS, London, 6th Ed., 1987.

7. Katzung B G, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, McGraw-Hill Medical Publishers, New York, 8th Ed., 2001

8. Lipponcott, Pharmacology, Lippincot William & Willkin, USA, 2001.

9. Manuchair Edabi, Pharmacology, Little Brown & Company, London, 1993.

10. Qayum A, Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Ghandhara University, Peshawar.

11. Bertram G K, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Paramount Publishing Business & Professional Group, USA, 6th Ed., 1995.

12. William F, Ganong W F, Review of Medical physiology, Prentice Hall International Inc, New Jersey.
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