Tuesday, March 1, 2011

First Professional; First Semester, Physiology and Histology


Cr. Hr. 03


1. BLOOD: Composition of blood (RBC, WBC and Platelets), Functions and Genesis of the formed elements, Fate of Red Blood cells, Jaundice, Reaction of Blood, Blood groups, Rh factors, ESR Blood volume, 80

Functions of Spleen, Blood coagulation, Hemophilia. Anaemias —classification.

2. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: Properties of the cardiac muscle. Origin and conduction of the heart beat. Cardiac cycle. ECG. Heart sounds.

Cardiac output. Stroke volume and heart rate. Nerve supply of the Heart. Coronary, Pulmonary, and skin circulation. Blood pressure, vasomotor system. Arterial pulse. Venous pulse, capillary circulation. Axon reflex, Triple response. Haemorrhage. Circulatory changes in exercise. Composition and circulate of lymph. Haemorrhage & Shock.

3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Mechanics of respiration. Intrathoracic, intrapulmonary pressure, pulmonary ventilation. Lungs volume and capacities. Composition of Inspired air, expired air and alveolar air, carriage of O2 and CO2 by the blood. Regulation of breathing (Nervous & Chemical control). Respiratory changes in exercise, pneumonias, emphysema and bronchial asthma.

4. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Mastication, Deglutation, Digestive juicessaliva, Gastric juice, Pancreatic juice. Bile and intestinal juices; their composition, Functions and mechanism of secreation, Movements of the stomach and intestines. Functions of large intestine. Defecation. Functions of liver and gall bladder.

5. URINARY SYSTEM: Urine formation — composition of urine —GFR Urea clearance. Formation of concentrated and diluted urine.


1. Introductin of cell: General structure of tissues in different systems of Body.

2. Basic Tissues: Epthelium (classification, shape, distribution and function). Supporting/connective tissue including bones and cartilage. (Classification, Distribution and Function) Muscular Tissue. (Types, distribution and function) Nervous Tissue (neuron and its types Neuroglia — classification and distribution).

3. Gastrointestinal tract: GIT including exocrine organs: Liver, pancreas and Gall Bladder.

4. Respiratory system: Respiratory system including Nasal cavity, Larynx, Trachea, Lung.

5. Cardio vascular System: Heart, Artery, Vein, Lymphatic.


Cr. Hr. 01

NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities.


1. Blood: Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb), ESR, RBC Count, WBC Count, DLC (Differential Leucocyte Count), Bleeding Time, Coagulation Time and Determination of blood groups.

2. Respiration: Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity. Determination of tidal volume. Demonstration of artificial respiration.

3. CVS: Recording of Arterial Pulse, Recording of Arterial Blood Pressure and Electro-cardiogram

Histology (Laboratory)

1. Demonstration of preparation and staining of slides. Histological examination of slides, epithelium, connective tissues, muscle tissues, Organ system – Lung, appendix, Gall bladder, Stomach, Intestine, Heart, Artery, Vein, Lymphatic, etc.

Recommended Books


1. Arthur C Guyton, M D, Text Books of Medical Physiology, W B Saunders Company, 9th Ed., 1996.

2. William F Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, Prentice Hgall international Inc, 17th Ed., 1995.

3. Chandi Charan Chatterjee, Human Physiology, Medical allied agency, 1994.

4. Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology. Revised by Cyril A Keele and Eric Neil.

5. Spence A P and Mason E B, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Beajamin/Cumming Publishing Inc Clifornia, 3rd Ed.

6. Snell R S, Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students, Litle Brown & Co Inc USA, 1992.


1. Bradbury S, Hewer’s Text Book of Histology, ELBS, London, 1984.

2. Reference Book: Tissues of the body by Legros Clerks. Publisher Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London.

3. Cormack H D, Essential Histology, J B Lippincott Co Philadelphia, 1993.

4. Hammersen F, Histology; color Atlas Of Microscopic Anatomy, Lee & Febijer Co, Pennsylvania, 1985.
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