Tuesday, May 5, 2009

Introduction of Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics

Q: 1. What is the definition of drug?
Ans. Any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, treatment, prevention or mitigation of disease in man or some other living things.

Q:2. What is the meaning of generic?
Ans. Any item or product that is sold without using brand name.

Q: 3. What do you mean by brand name?
Ans. It is also called as trade name. It is that name of the drug given to a drug or chemical, for sale, by a manufacturer in agreement with the regulating agencies.

Q: 4. What is pharmacopoeia?
Ans. It is an official book containing an authoritative list of medicines, formulae of these drugs, and standards appropriate for their strength such as USP is the Pharmacopoeia for Britain.

Q: 5. What is the difference between pharmacy and pharmacology?
Ans. The art or science, practice or profession of preparing, preserving, compounding, and dispensing drugs used as medical treatments is pharmacy whereas pharmacology talks with special reference to the mechanism of action of the drug on a (particular) disease.
Q: 6. What do you mean by liberation? Liberation is the process of drug release from the dosage form in which it is corporated.
Q: 7. What do you mean by Absorption?
Q: 8. What do you mean by Distribution?
Q: 9. What do you mean by Metabolism?
Q: 10. What do you mean by Excretion?
Q: 11. Briefly tell about the LADME scheme?
Q: 12. What are the input processes?
Q: 13. What are the output processes?
Q: 14. Shortly tell the factors affecting absorption?

Ans. (A) Factors related to Drug:
(1) Chemical Nature
(2) Dosage Form
(3) Degree of ionization
(4) Lipid water partition coefficient
(B) Factors related to Patient:
(1) Route of Administration
(2) State of health of the absorbing surface
(3) Rate of general circulation

Q: 15. Shortly tell the factors affecting drug distribution?
Ans. (A) Physical and Chemical Factors
(1) Molecular weight
(2) Ionization
(B) Capillary permeability
(C) Binding of drugs to plasma proteins
(D) Tissue affinity
(E) Blood flow

Viva from out of course of Pharmacology (Remember Ayah Number, Surah Number and What the Ayah wants to tell):

Q: 16. What ALLAH has said about arguments (discussion or talking)?
Ans. ALLAH has said in Holy Qur'an:

"Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair admonition, and argue with them in the kindest way. Your Lord knows best who is misguided from His way. And He knows best
who are guided. (125)
(Surah An-Nahl (The Bee), Surah # 16: Ayah #125)"

Ans. Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion are considered as the processes for output.

Ans. Liberation and absorption are considered as the processes for input of the drug.

Ans. It describes the pharmacokinetic processes and short form for Liberation, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion. After the drug is taken it is (1) liberated in the stomach, (2) absorbed by the stomach and intestine, (3) From there distributed in the blood (4) Metabolised in the liver and (5) Eliminated through the pulmonary, biliary or kidney processes.

Ans. It is the process of elimination of the drug either unchanged form or metabolites from the body.

Ans. It is the process in which drug is changed from one form to another which is comparatively easier to eliminate.

Ans. It is the process of diffusion or transfer of drugs from inside blood vessels to outside of blood vessels.

Ans. Absorption is the process of drug movement to the circulating blood from the administration site.

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