Tuesday, April 14, 2009

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Q: 1. How norepinephrine (neurotransmitter) is synthesized in the body?
Ans.
Norepinephrine is found at most of the sympathetic neuro-effector synapses. It is synthesized by Tyrosine.
1) Tyrosine is hydroxylated to DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase
2) DOPA is decarboxylated to dopamine by the use of DOPA decarboxylase
3) Dopamine is hydroxylated to norepinephrine
4) Norepinephrine is methylated to norepinephrine.

Q: 2. How acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) is synthesized in the body?
Ans. It is stored in granules of synaptic vesicles. It is synthesized by Choline. Choline reacts with acetyl-CoA in the presence of choline acetyltransferase to form acetylcholine.

Q: 3. What is the structure of acetylcholine?

Ans.
Q: 4. What is the structure of Norepinephrine?
Ans.

Q: 5. Give classification of sympathomimetics.
Ans.
1) Alpha Selective:
a) Alpha-1 selective:
Phenylephrine, Cirazoline, Methoxamine
b) Alpha-2 selective:
Clonidine, Methylnorepinephrine, Guanabenz, Guanfacine
2) Beta selective:
a) Beta-1 selective:
Dobutamine, Prenalteral
b) Beta-2 selective:
Terbutaline, Albuterol, Salmeterol, Metaproterenol
3) Alpha and Beta Non-selective:
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine
4) Dopamine Selective:
Dopamine

Q: 6. Give classification of Sympatholytics.
Ans.
1) Alpha Adrenoceptor Antagonists:
a) Alpha-1 Antagonists:
Prazosin, Terazosin, Indoramin
b) Alpha-2 Antagonists:
Tolazoline, Yohimbine, Rauwolscine
c) Alpha-1 and -2 Antagonists:
Phentolamine, Ergot derivatives e.g. ergotamine, dihydroergotamine
2) Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists:
a) Beta-1 Antagonists:
b) Beta-2 Antagonists:
Butoxamine
c) Beta-1 and -2 Antagonists:
Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol, Pindolol
3) Mixed (Alpha and Beta) Adrenoceptor Antagonists:
Labetolol

Viva from out of Course of Pharmacology (Memorise the Surah Number, Ayah Number and What the Ayah wants to tell?):

Q: 7. What ALLAH has ordered about Eyes and Chastity?
Ans. ALLAH has mentioned in Holy Qur’an:
“Say to the believers that they should lower their eyes and guard their chastity. That is purer
for them. Allah is aware of what they do. (30)
Say to the believing women that they should lower their eyes and guard their chastity and not display their adornments–except for what normally shows–and draw their head-coverings across their breasts. They should only display their adornments to their husbands or their fathers or their husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or their sisters’ sons or their women or those they own as slaves or their male attendants who have no sexual desire or children who still have no awareness of women’s private parts. Nor should they stamp their feet so that their hidden ornaments are known. Turn to Allah every one of you, believers, so that hopefully you will have success. (31)
(Surah Al Nur (The light), Surah # 24: Ayah #30-31)”
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