Saturday, April 16, 2011

Codeine (Sulphate or phosphate)

It is phenanthrene derivative-opiate agonist.
Mechanism of Action:
It lowers the cough reflex by direct effect on the cough center in medulla of the brain that appears to exert a drying effect on respiratory tract mucosa and increased viscosity of bronchial secretions.
Action:
It has less effect on cough than morphine if we consider treatment on weight basis.

Therapeutic uses:
1. Cough:
It can be used for the (symptomatic) treatment of non-productive cough.

2. Analgesic

Administration and dosage:
It is administered orally for anti-tussive effect. Its dosage is 10-20 mg every 4-6 hours for adults and children above 12 years age. The dosage is half for children between 6-12 years.

Pharmacokinetics:
1. It is well absorbed from G.I. Tract.
2. Peak anti-tussive effect occurs after 0.5 to 2 hours and remains for (may) up to 4-6 hours.
3. It can be distributed into milk.
4. It is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine.

Adverse effects:
Its side effect is rare, which may show nausea, vomiting, constipation with repeated doses, dizziness and sedation.
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