Extraction is the process of separation of medicinally active substances of plant or animal from a mixture by a mechanical or chemical action such as by distillation or pressure.
This separation is done with the help of dissolving one or more of the substances in a solvent in which it is easily soluble and are separated on the basis of their physical or chemical properties.
Forms of Extraction:
Q: What are the processes of extraction?
Ans: The principle methods of drug extractions are,
Frequently a combination of percolation and maceration is used in extraction.
Q: What is maceration?
Ans: The word maceration comes from a latin word “macerare” meaning “to soak”.
Q: What is the principle of maceration?
Ans: It is a process in which the properly comminuted drug is permitted to soak in menstruum until the cellular structure is softened and penetrated by the menstruum and the soluble constituents are dissolved.
Q: How soluble contents are settled down in Maceration?
Ans: As the soluble constituents dissolved in the menstrum, they tend to settle to the bottom as a result of an increase in the specific gravity of the liquid due to its added weights.
Q: In which type of drugs Maceration is used?
Ans: For drugs containing little or no cellular material such as benzoin, aloe, and tolu, which dissolve almost completely in the menstruum, maceration is the most efficient method of extraction
Q: On which temperature Maceration is performed?
Ans: Maceration is usually conducted at a temperature of 15-20 C for 3-5 days or until the soluble matter is dissolved.
Q: Why dipping is essential in Maceration?
Ans: Occasional dipping of the drug bag may facilitate the speed of extraction.
Q: What do you mean by menstruum?
Ans: Menstruum refers to the solvent, which is used to extract ingredients from plant or animal origin.
Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (Remington the Science and Practice of Pharmacy)
British Pharmacopoeia 2010
Textbook of Pharmaceutics