Sunday, April 26, 2009

Parasympathomimetic Drugs

Q: 1. Classify parasympathomimetic drugs?
Ans:
(A)Direct acting:
(1)Muscarinic agonists:
(a)Choline Esters:
Bethanechol
(b)Alkaloids:
Muscarine, Pilocarpine, Oxotremorine
(2)Nicotinic agonists:
Alkaloids:
Nicotine, Lobeline
(3)Mixed agonists:
Choline esters:
Acetylcholine, Methacholine, Carbachol
(B)Indirect acting (Anti-Cholinesterase)
(1)Reversible:
(a)Quaternary alcohols:
Edrophonium
(b)Carbamate esters:
Neostigmine, Physostigmine, Ambenonium
(2)Irreversible:
Organophosphate compounds:
Echothiofate, Parathion, Melathoin

Q: 2. Classify Parasympatholytic drugs.
Ans.
(A)Anti-Muscarinic drugs:
(1)Natural alkaloids:
Atropine, Scopolamine (Hyoscine)
(2)Synthetic
(a)Mydriatic:
Homatropine, Eucatropine, Tropicamide
(b)Anti-Parkinsonism:
Benzhexol, Benztropine
(c)Anti-asthmatics:
Ipratropium
(d)Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary:
(i)Tertiary amines:
Pirenzepine, Dicyclomine, Oxybutynin
(ii)Quaternary amines:
Propantheline, Mepenzolate
(B)Anti-Nicotinic drugs:
(1)Ganglion blockers:
(a)Depolarizers:
Nicotine
(b)Competitive:
(i)Secondary amines:
Mecamylamine
(ii)Tertiary amines:
Pempidine
(iii)Quaternary amines:
Hexamethonium, Trimethaphan
(2)Neuromuscular blockers:
(a)Depolarizers:
Succinylcholine, Decamethonium
(b)Competitive:
Tubocurarine, Atracurium, Gallamine
(C)Cholinesterase regenerators:
Pralidoxime

Q: 3. What ALLAH has said about Seafood in Holy Qur’an?Ans: ALLAH has said in Holy Qur’an:“Anything you catch in the sea is lawful for you, and all food from it, for your enjoyment and that of travelers, but land game is forbidden for you while you are in the state of pilgrimage.So have fear of Allah, Him to Whom you will be gathered. (96)
(Surah Al-Ma’ida (The Table, The Table Spread), Surah # 5: Ayah # 96)

Q: 4. What ALLAH has said about saying "Insha ALLAH"?
Ans:ALLAH has said in Holy Qur'an:
"Never say about anything, ‘I am doing that tomorrow,’(23) without adding ‘If Allah wills.’ Remember your Lord when you forget, and say, ‘Hopefully my Lord will guide me to something closer to right guidance than this.’(24)
(Surah Al-Kahf (The Cave), Surah # 18: Ayah # 23-24)"
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