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1. Metabolic fate of Biomolecules (Anabolism and Catabolism)
(a) Carbohydrates: Introduction to metabolism, Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose, Glycolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Citric acid cycle, Energetics of various metabolic processes.
(b) Lipids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids, Oxidation of fatty acids through â-oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids, neutral lipids and cholesterol.
(c) Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids, Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids, Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds.
(d) Bioenergetics: Principles of bioenergetics. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
2. Regulation of Metabolic Processes
(a) Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Niacin, Pyridoxal phosphate, Biotin Folic acid, Cyanocobalamin – members of B-complex family – and Ascorbic acid), Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes.
(b) Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones, Physiological roles of various hormones, Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones.
(c) Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP, Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the regulation of metabolic processes.
(d) Gene Expression: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Gene expression) Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology, Pharmaceutical applications. Balance of Catabolic, Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism, Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body.
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NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the requirements, e.g. Quantitative analysis of: Carbohydrates – Glucose (reducing sugar) and any other carbohydrate using Benedict and Anthrone method. Amino acids, Peptides and Proteins using Biuret and Ninhydrin (Spectrophotometric) method. Analysis of normal and abnormal components of Urine including Sugar, Uric acid, Bilirubin, Cholesterol and Creatinine.
1. M N Chaterjea, Medical Biochemistry, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, 2003.
2. Roberk Murray, Daryl K, Granner, Peter A Mayes, Victor W Rodwell Harper’s Biochemistry, Appleton and Lange, Lange Medical Publications, NewYork, 2000.
3. Albert L Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publisher, Delhi, 1993.
4. Lubert Stryer, Biochemistry, W H Freeman and Company, 2002.
5. Pamela C Champe, Richard A Harvey, Illustrated Biochemistry, J Lippincot Company,
6. Harper’s Biochemistry, Print-Hall, New Jersey, 1996.
7. M Rafiq, Biochemistry, The Caravan Book House, Lahore, 1st Ed.
8. Montogomary, Clinical Chemistry, The C V Mosby Company, 5th Ed.
9. Conn and Stumpf, Outlines of Biochemistry, John Willey & Sons, New York, 5th Ed.,