It represents the slow and controlled release of medicaments from microfabricated device. These are the types of small programmable devices.
In this microchip, micrometer scale pumps, valves and flow channels are incorporated or microfabricated into the active devices. Microchip of solid state silicon can be used in this technique. These microchips have following properties:
1. They can store a large amount and number of chemicals or medicaments
2. They have the ability of controlling the time of release of chemicals or medicaments
3. They have the ability of controlling the rate of release of chemicals or medicaments
These microchips have a tiny power supply. The control of microchips are done by remote control, microprocessors and/or biosensors.
The chemical release takes place through electrochemical dissolution of membranes of thin anode covering microreservoirs which are filled with chemicals in the form liquid, solid or gel.
This microchip technology has found uses in many areas such as chemical detection, drug delivery, medical diagnostics and combinatorial chemistry.
January 20, 1999. A commentary on the controlled release microchip. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/1999/microchipcom.html. Accessed March 28, 2011.
Santini, J. T. Jr.; Cima, M. J.et al. 1999. A controlled-release microchip. Nature, 397, Pages 335-338.
Santini, J. T. Jr.; Richards, A. C. et al. 2000. Microchips as Controlled Drug-Delivery Devices. Wiley-VCH, 39, Pages 2396-2407.