Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Pharmacology viva preparation (Introduction)

Theory:

Q: 1. What is Handerson Hasselbalch equation?

Ans. This is used to determine the relative concentration of the protonated and unprotonated form of the drug which is determined by pH at the site of diffusion and by the strength of weak acid or base (pKa).

log Protonated/Unprotonated = pKa - pH

Q: 2. What is Young's formula for calculating the dosage of children?
Ans. Child dose = Adult dose x Age in Years / Age + 12

Q: 3. What is Dilling's formula for calculating the dosage of children?
Ans. Child dose = Adult dose x Age in years / 20

Q: 4. What is Clark's formula for calculating the dosage of children?
Ans: Child dose = Adult dose x Weight in pounds / 150

Q: 5. What do you know about Placebo?
Ans. It is any inactive compound used to satisfy patient's need for drug therapy and in research it is used for controlled studies for the determination of medicinal substances.

Practical:


Q: 6. What is function of glucose in Tyrode's solution?
Ans. It is used to provide nutrition.

Q: 7. What is the function of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 in tyrode's solution?
Ans. These are used to maintain isotonicity and electrical neutrality.

Q: 8. What is the function of NaHCO3 and NaH2PO4 in tyrode's solution?
Ans. These are used to maintain pH between 7.3-7.6.

Q: 9. What is the function of MgCl2 in the tyrode's solution?
Ans. These are used to regulate motility of the intestine.

Viva from out of course of Pharmacology (Remember Ayah number, Surah number and What the ayah wants to tell):
Q: 10. What is mentioned in Holy Qur'an about walking arrogantly on the Earth?
Ans. It is mentioned in Holy Qur'an:

"(Luqman said,) Do not avert your face from people out of haughtiness and do not strut about arrogantly on the earth. Allah does not love anyone who is vain or boastful. (18)"
(Surah Luqman (Luqman), Surah # 31: Ayah # 18)
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