Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Basic Pharmacology (Viva Preparation)

Q: 1. What is the difference between receptor and neurotransmitter?
Ans. Receptor is a structural protein molecule on the cell surface or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a hormone, antigen, or neurotransmitter. Whereas neurotransmitters are the chemicals that carry messages between different nerve cells or between nerve cell and muscles.

Q: 2. What are adrenergic receptors?
Ans. These are reactive components of effector tissues. These receptors are activated by norepinephrine and/or epinephrine and by various adrenergic drugs. On activation, it results in a change of effector tissue function e.g. relaxation of bronchial muscles and contraction of arteriolar muscles.

Q: 3. What do you know about G proteins?
Ans. These are intracellular membrane associated proteins stimulated by various receptors such as beta adrenergic receptors. They work as second messengers. Due to high affinity for guanine nucleotides, they are termed as G proteins.

Q: 4. Name some of the cholinergic antagonists.
Ans. Atropine, Botulinum toxin, Scopolamine, Tubocurarine, Erythroidin (nicotinic cholinergic antagonist)

Q: 5. Name some of the transmitter substances.
Ans. Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), Glutamate

Q: 6. What are the main types of receptors?
Ans. Four main types of receptors: 1) Ligand gated channels 2) G protein coupled receptors 3) Nuclear receptors 4) Kinase linked receptors

Q:7. What are ligand gated channels?
Ans. These are made up of subunits of protein that form a central core.

Q: 8. What are the main types of ligand gated channels?
Ans. 1) Nicotinic receptor 2) GABA receptor

Q: 9. What do you know about G protein coupled receptors?
Ans. They form a family of receptors with seven membrane spanning helices. They are associated with physiological responses by second messengers.

Q:10. What do you know about nuclear receptors?
Ans. They are used to regulate transcription and protein synthesis. These receptors for steroid hormones and thyroid hormones are located in the cell nucleus.

Q:11. What are kinase linked receptors?
Ans. These are surface receptors that have intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. They include receptors for cytokines, insulin and growth factors.

Q: 12. What do you mean by second messenger?
Ans. An intermediate molecule produced as a result of hormone receptor interaction e.g. adenosine 3c,5c-cyclic monophosphate, Calcium and Inositide.

Q: 13. What do you know about baroreceptor?
Ans. Nerve endings those are sensitive to blood pressure changes.

Q: 14. What is pharmacology?
Ans. It is the science of drugs including their origin or sources, chemistry, production, composition, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.

Q: 15. What is the difference between pharmacy and pharmacology?
Ans. The art or science, practice or profession of preparing, preserving, compounding, and dispensing drugs used as medical treatments is pharmacy whereas pharmacology talks with special reference to the mechanism of action of the drug on a (particular) disease.
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