Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Classification of Macrolides

Macrolides include:

a. Azithromycin (J. Retsema et al.)
b. Clarithromycin (K. B. Waites et al.)
c. Erythromycin
d. Dirithromycin
e. Roxithromycin
f. Leucascandrolide A (Michele D. Ambrosio et al.)
g. Josamycin (T. Bergan et al.)
h. Kitasamycin
i. Midecamicine/midecamicine acetate
j. Oleandomycin
k. Spiramycin
l. Troleandomycin
m. Tylosin/tylocine
n. Carbomycin A
o. Miocamycin
p. Rokitamycin
q. Flurithromycin
r. Leucascandrolide B.
s. Maridomycin (Setsuo Harada et al.)
t. Kejanimicin (Rolf Hirsenkorn et al.)
u. Tetrocarcin (Rolf Hirsenkorn et al.)
v. Chlorothricin (Rolf Hirsenkorn et al.)

Ketolides:
a. Telithromycin
b. Cethromycin
c. Spiramycin
d. Ansamycin
e. Oleandomycin
f. Carbomycin
g. Tylocine

Structurally unrelated Macrolide:
a. Lincosamides
i. Clindamycin
ii. Lincomycin

b. Streptogrammins
i. Pristinamycin
ii. Quinopristin/dalfopristin

c. Sorangicin A

References:
J Retsema, A Girard, W Schelkly, M Manousos, M Anderson, G Bright, R Borovoy, L Brennan and R Mason. Spectrum and mode of action of azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new 15-membered-ring macrolide with improved potency against gram-negative organisms. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1987 December; 31(12): Pages 1939-1947.

K. B. Waites, G H Cassell, K C Canupp and P B Fernandes. In vitro susceptibilities of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas to new macrolides and aryl-fluoroquinolones. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1988 October; 32(10): Pages 1500-1502.


Michele D'Ambrosio, Antonio Guerrieroa, Cécile Debitusb and Francesco Pietraa.
Leucascandrolide A, a New Type of Macrolide:the First Powerfully Bioactive Metabolite of Calcareous Sponges (Leucascandua caveolata, a New Genus from the Coral Sea). Separatum HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA - Vol. 79 (1996)

Rolf Hirsenkorn, Richard R. Schmidt. Functionally substituted vinyl carbanions, 42. Synthesis of the top half of chlorothricolide. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, Volume 1990 Issue 9, Pages 883 - 899.

Setsuo Harada, Masayuki Muroi, Masahiro Kondo, Kanji Tsuchiya, Tai Matsuzawa, Takeshi Fugono, Toyokazu Kishi and Jisaburo Ueyanagi. Chemical Modification of Maridomycin, a New Macrolide Antibiotic. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 1973 August; 4(2): Pages 140-148.

T. Bergan, B. Øydvin. Pharmacokinetics of Josamycin - A New Macrolide Antibiotic. International Journal of Experimental and clinical pharmacology, Volume 7, Number 1, 1972.

Further Reading:
The Goodman and Gilman Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Laurence Brunton, Donald blumenthal, Iain buxton and Keith Parker

AHFS Drug Information 2008 (Ahfs Drug Information) by American Society of Health-system

Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, 4th Edition (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series) by Richard A. Harvey, Pamela C. Champe, Richard Finkel, Luigi Cubeddu and Michelle A. Clarke

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