Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Classification of cephalosporins

These are chemically and in their mode of action similar to penicillin.

These are classified according to the generations:

First generation cephalosporins:
a. Cefacetrile,
b. Cefadroxil (R. E. Buck et al.) (Oral),
c. Cefalexin, (Oral)
d. Cefaloglycin,
e. Cefalonium,
f. Cefaloridine, (Parenteral)
g. Cefalothin, (Parenteral)
h. Cefapirin, (Parenteral)
i. Cefatrizine,
j. Cefazedone,
k. Cefazaflur,
l. Cefazolin, (Parenteral)
m. Cefradine, (Oral)
n. Cefroxadine,
o. Ceftezole

Second generation cephalosporins:
a. Cefaclor, (Oral)
b. Cefamandole, (Parenteral)
c. Cefmetazole, (Parenteral)
d. Cefminox,
e. Cefonicid, (Parenteral)
f. Ceforanide, (Parenteral)
g. Cefoxitin, (Parenteral)
h. Cefotiam,
i. Cefotetan, (Parenteral)
j. Cefprozil, (Parenteral)
k. Cefbuperazone,
l. Cefuroxime, (Parenteral)
m. Cefuzonam,
n. Loracarbef (Parenteral)

Third generation cephalosporins:
a. Cefcapene,
b. Cefdaloxime,
c. Cefdinir,
d. Cefditoren,
e. Cefetamet,
f. Cefixime, (Parenteral)
g. Cefmenoxime,
h. Cefodizime,
i. Cefoperazone, (Parenteral)
j. Cefotaxime, (Parenteral)
k. Cefpimizole,
l. Cefpiramide,
m. Cefpodoxime,
n. Cefsulodin,
o. Ceftazidime, (Parenteral)
p. Cefteram,
q. Ceftibuten,
r. Ceftiolene,
s. Ceftizoxime, (Parenteral)
t. Ceftriaxone, (Parenteral)
u. Flomoxef,
v. Latamoxef,
w. Moxalactam (Parenteral)

Fourth generation cephalosporins:
a. Cefepime,
b. Cefozopran,
c. Cefpirome,
d. Cefquinome

Fifth generation cephalosporins:
a. Ceftobiprole (Tatiana Bogdanovich et al.) (Andreas F. Widmer)
b. Ceftaroline (S Crofskey)

References:
Andreas F. Widmer, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. http://www.sld.cu/galerias/pdf/sitios/apua-cuba/v4-ceftobiprole._a_new_option_for_treatment_of_skin_and_soft-tissue_infections.pdf

R. E. Buck, K. E. Price. Cefadroxil, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Infection (Journal), Volume 8, Supplement - 5, September, 1980, Pages S532-S537.

S. Crofskey. Ceftaroline a strong competitor in cSSSI. Inpharma weekly, October 14, 2006, Issue 1559, 7-8.

Tatiana Bogdanovich, Lois M. Ednie, Stuart Shapiro, Peter C. Appelbaum. Antistaphylococcal Activity of Ceftobiprole, a New Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, October 2005, Volume 49, Number 10, Pages 4210-4219.

Further Reading:
The Goodman and Gilman Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Laurence Brunton, Donald blumenthal, Iain buxton and Keith Parker

AHFS Drug Information 2008 (Ahfs Drug Information) by American Society of Health-system

Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, 4th Edition (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series) by Richard A. Harvey, Pamela C. Champe, Richard Finkel, Luigi Cubeddu and Michelle A. Clarke

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