Sunday, April 24, 2011

Classification of Diuretics

Classification according to different groups:

Antidiuretic (ADH) hormone antagonists:
Lithium salts, demeclocycline, conivaptan

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors:
Acetazolamide, Acetazolamide sodium

Loop (High ceiling) diuretics:
Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid, Ethacrynate sodium, Furosemide, Torsemide, Umetanide, Piretanide

Mercurial diuretics:
Mercaptomerin, Calomel, Mercuhydrin, Meralluride, Mercumatilin, Mersalyl

Methylxanthine diuretics:
Aminophylline, Theobromine, caffeine, Theophylline, Oxtriphylline (A salt of theophylline)

Osmotic diuretics:
1. Osmotic electrolytes:
Sodium and potassium salts

2. Osmotic non-electrolytes:
Mannitol, Urea, Isosorbide, Sucrose, Glycerin

3. Acid-forming salts:
Ammonium chloride

Plant products:
Taraxacum, Cornsilk, Allium (Syn. Garlic), Buchu (dried leaves of Barosma betulina), Oleander, Turpentine oil

Potassium sparing diuretics:
Amiloride hydrochloride, Triamterene

Aldosterone antagonist:
Spironolactone, Aldadiene (A metabolite of apironolactone)

Thiazide diuretics:
Buthiazide, Chlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, Metolazone, Cyclothiazide

Uracil derivatives:
Aminometramide

Miscellaneous diuretics:
Dextran, Ammonium benzoate, Dimethylpiperazine tartarate

Classification according to site of action:

Direct diuretics
1. Drugs acting on proximal tubule
Osmotic diuretics, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Methylxanthine diuretics

2. Drugs acting on ascending limb of loop of henle
Loop (high ceiling) diuretics, Mercurial diuretics

3. Drugs acting on distal tubule
Thiazide diuretics

4. Drugs acting on collecting tubule
Potassium sparing diuretics, ADH antagonists, Aldosterone antagonists

Indirect diuretics
Cardiac diuretics
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