Sunday, April 3, 2011

Classification of anti-emetic agents

1. Classification according to action:


a. Dopamine D2-receptor antagonists:
Metoclopromide, Domperidone, Phenothiazines (e.g. chlorpromazine, thioridazine)

b. Sedative-hypnotics:
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines.

c. Anti-histamines:
Promethazine, Cyclizine, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine.

d. 5-HT3 (serotonin) receptor antagonists:
Ondansetron, Tropisetron, Granisetron.

e. Anti-cholinergic:
Scopolamine

f. Demulcents:
Gum acacia, Gum tragacanth.

g. Miscellaneous:
Aprepitant, Diphenidol hydrochloride

2. Classification according to specific causes:

a. Motion sickness:
Anti-cholinergic drugs, Anti-histamines

b. Nausea and vomiting due to other causes:

i. Vomiting by cytotoxic drugs:
Phenothiazines, metoclopramide, serotonin antagonists

ii. Vomiting induced by pregnancy:
Anti-histamines, Vit. B6 alongwith anti-histamine such as meclizine

iii. Vertigo:
Cyclizine, Phenothiazine, Cinnarizine
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