Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Worldwide Cancer Status

Cancer is found to be the leading cause of death in the world with the 13% of all death cases around the world in 2008. About 12.7 million cases of cancer and 7.6 million deaths were calculated in 2008. Upto middle-income countries there are about half (51%) of all cancer cases worldwide in 1975; while this proportion increased to 55% in 2007 and is thought to reach 61% by the year 2050.
There are more than 100 types of cancer and it can affect any part of the body.

Two factors are increasing the number of worldwide cancer patients:
1. Aging
2. Cancer causing attitude such as use of tobacco (It is estimated that about 1.3 billion people worldwide smoke tobacco), harmful or damaging use of alcohol, physical inactivity or poor diet
3. Older age
4. Race
5. Family history

Apart from these factors some other factors can also cause cancer such as
1. Over weight and obesity (WHO estimates that in 2005, overweight adults were about 1.6 billion from the total population and 300 million obese. It is estimated that the number of overweight people may go upto 2.3 billion by the year 2015.
2. Exposure to environmental carcinogens such as radon, arsenic, asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
3. Chronic Infections

A large number of cancer cases and deaths are in developing countries.More than 70 % of all cancer deaths occured in developing countries.
Breast Cancer is leading type of cancer in females and lung cancer is the leading type of cancer in males, since 1985, and they are also the leading cause of death from cancer for both developing as well as developed world. In females, lung cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer and second most important cause of death from cancer. According to 2003-2007 research, top 5 cancer sites are prostate (a gland males that surround the tube for discharging urine located below the bladder), Breast, Lung as well as Bronchus and Colon (part of large intestine) as well as rectum (lower part of the large intestine).

Incidence rates of cancer is twice as high in developed countries as compared to developing countries.

It has been estimated that more than 30% of cancer deaths can be prevented by preventing the use of tobacco, taking a healthy diet, showing physical activity, and by prevention of infections that may cause cancer such as chronic (old) infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or human papillomavirus (HPV).

References:
Jemal, A.; Bray, F.; Center, M. M.; Ferlay, J.; Ward, E.; Forman, D. 2011.
Global cancer statistics. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61, Pages 69-90.

SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2007. 2007. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/browse_csr.php?section=1&page=sect_01_table.23.html#b . Accessed Mar 30, 2011.

Thun, M. J.; DeLancey, J. O. et al. 2010. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 100-110.
World Health Organization (WHO), Cancer; Fact Sheet. Feb 2011,  http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ . Accessed Mar 30, 2011.
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