Wednesday, March 2, 2011

Fourth Professional, Second Semester, Pharmaceutics

PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics-II)
(Theory)

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1. INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS: Determination through plasma drug level studies. Application of pharmacokinetics in clinical situations.

2. CONCEPT OF COMPARTMENT (S) MODELS: One compartment open model. Two compartment open model. Three compartment open model and Non-compartmental method of analysis.

3. BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE AND VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION:

Concept and Methods of Determination.

4. DRUG CLEARANCE:

Mechanism, determination and relationship of clearance with half-life.

5. ELIMINATION OF DRUGS:

a) Hepatic Elimination. Percent of Drug Metabolized, Drug Biotransformation reactions, (Phase-I reactions and phase-II reactions), First pass effect, Hepatic clearance of protein bound drugs and Biliary excretion of drugs.

b) Renal Excretion of Drugs: Renal clearance, Tubular Secretion and Tubular Reabsorption.

c) Elimination of Drugs through other organs: Pulmonary excretion, Salivary excretion, Mammary excretion, Skin excretion and Genital excretion.

6. PROTEIN BINDING:

Determination of plasma protein binding and Clinical significance of drug-protein binding.

7. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOAVAILABILITY IN CLINICAL SITUATIONS.

8. APPLICATIONS OF PHARMACOKIENTICS IN DISEASE STATES.

PHARMACEUTICS-X (Biopharmaceutics-II)
(Laboratory)

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NOTE:- Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g.

1. Plasma level-time curve: Determination of Pharmacokinetic parameters.

2. Determination of plasma protein binding.

3. Urinary sampling techniques.

4. In Laboratory animals. In humans. Renal excretion of drugs or drug disposition.

Recommended Books

1. Leon Shargel, Applied Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Appleton & Lange, New York, 4th Ed., 1999.
2. Malcoln Rouland, Thomous N Tozer, Clinical Pharmacokinetics, William & Willkins, London, 1995.
3. Milo Gibaldi, Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Marchel & Dakker Inc, New York, 1982.
4. Gibbson and Skett, Introduction to Drug Metabolism, Champ & Hall, London, 1986.
5. Robert E Notari, Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Marchel & Dakker Inc, New York, 1988.
6. Stephen H Curry, Drug disposition and pharmacokinetics, Black Well Scientific Publishing, Oxford, 1977.
7. Avraham Yacobi, Toxicokinetics and New Drug Development, Paramount Press, New York, 1989.
8. Sarfraz Niazi, Text Book of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1985.
9. P Macheras, C Reppas and J B Dressman, Biopharmaceutics of orally administered drugs, Ellis Horwood Limited, London (1995).
10. Albert P Li, Invitro approaches for evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity, CRC Press, LLC, USA, 2004.
11. Ronald D Schoenwald, Pharmacokinetics in drug discovery and Development, CRC Press, LLC, USA, 2002.
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